Presentation of Grassrootsmobilise at EuARe Annual Conference

4 March 2019

European Academy of Religion Annual Conference 2019, Bologna

On 4 March Effie Fokas presented the Grassrootsmobilise project as part of a panel on European Funded Projects at the European Academy of Religion (EuARe) Annual Conference that was held in Bologna from 4-7 March 2019, alongside a number of other engaging religion-related projects. Here she summarised project results, presented the lines of analysis currently being applied to the project’s data, and exchanged experiences with other research project leaders.

The full conference programme is available here.

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Publications round-up (further details below)

*Texts in green are freely available online



Directions in Religious Pluralism in Europe: Mobilizations in the Shadow of European Court of Human Rights Religious Freedom Jurisprudence’, Oxford Journal of Law and Religion, Vol. 4, No. 1, 2015, pp. 54-74 – Effie Fokas

Comparative Susceptibility and Differential Effects on the Two European Courts: A Study of Grasstops Mobilizations around Religion’, Oxford Journal of Law and Religion, Vol. 5, No. 3, 2016, pp. 541-574 – Effie Fokas

‘Kokkinakis at the Grassroots Level’, Journal of Religion and Human Rights, 2017, Vol.12, Nos. 2-3, pp. 210-222 – Effie Fokas

‘The Legal Status of Religious Minorities: exploring the impact of the European Court of Human Rights’Social Compass, 2018, Vol. 65, No. 1, pp. 25-42 – Effie Fokas

Journal Special Issue: European Court of Human Rights and minority religions, Religion, State and Society, 2017, Vol. 45, Nos. 3-4:

Symposium: Religion and Education in the Shadow of the European Court of Human Rights, Politics and Religion, 2019, Vol. 12, Supplement S1:



‘Sociology at the intersection between law and religion’, in ed. Silvio Ferrari, Routledge Handbook of Law and Religion, Routledge, 2015, pp. 59-74 – Effie Fokas

‘God’s advocates: The multiple fronts of the war on blasphemy in Greece’, in eds. Jeroen Temperman and Andras Koltay, Blasphemy and Freedom of Expression: Comparative, Theoretical and Historical Reflections after the Charlie Hebdo Massacre, Cambridge University Press, 2017, pp. 389-410 – Effie Fokas

‘The Geopolitics of Transnational Law and Religion’, in eds. Susanna Mancini and Michel Rosenfeld, The Conscience Wars: Rethinking the balance between Religion, Identity and Equality, Cambridge University press, 2018, pp. 258-274 – Pasquale Annicchino

‘Pluralism and Religious Freedom. Insights from Orthodox Europe’, in eds. Elisabeth A. Diamantopoulou and Louis-Leon Christians, Orthodox Christianity and Human Rights in Europe: A Dialogue Between Theological Paradigms and Socio-Legal Pragmatics, Peter Lang2018 – Effie Fokas

‘Religious American and Secular European Courts, or vice versa? A study of institutional cross-pollination’, in ed. Titus Hjelm, Peter L. Berger and the Sociology of Religion: 50 Years after the Sacred Canopy, Bloomsbury Academic, 2018, pp. 135-155 – Effie Fokas

‘Grassroots level awareness about religion at the European Court of Human Rights’, in eds. Jeroen Temperman, Jeremy Gunn and Malcolm Evans, The Kokkinakis Papers: Taking Stock of 25 years of ECHR Jurisprudence on Freedom of Religion or Belief, forthcoming – Effie Fokas

‘Implementation and impact of Strasbourg Court rulings: the case of religious minorities and their Convention freedoms’, in eds. Jeroen Temperman, Jeremy Gunn and Malcolm Evans, The Kokkinakis Papers: Taking Stock of 25 years of ECHR Jurisprudence on Freedom of Religion or Belief, forthcoming – Dia Anagnostou

‘Religion and Human Rights in Greece’, in eds. Giuseppe Giordan and Siniša Zrinščak, Global Eastern Orthodoxy: Politics, Religion, and Human Rights, forthcoming 2019 – Effie Fokas



The European Court of Human Rights and minority religions: messages generated and messages received, eds. Effie Fokas and James T. Richardson, (2018) Abingdon: Routledge:

– ECtHR and case law: clarity, consistency and controversy

  • ‘The principled slope: religious freedom and the European Court of Human Rights’ – Melanie Adrian
  • ‘The freedom to wear religious clothing in the case law of the European Court of Human Rights: an appraisal in the light of states’ positive obligations’ – Marcella Ferri
  • ‘Human rights and religions: ‘living together’ or dying apart? A critical assessment of the dissenting opinion in S.A.S. v. France and the notion of ‘living together’’ – Christos Tsevas
  • ‘Militant or pluralist secularism? The European Court of Human Rights facing religious diversity’ – Roberta Medda-Windischer
  • ‘Update on Jehovah’s Witness cases before the European Court of Human Rights: implications of a surprising partnership’ – James T. Richardson
  • ‘Trying Islam: Muslims before the European Court of Human Rights’ – Turan Kayaoglu
  • ‘A rights-based discourse to contest the boundaries of state secularism? The case of the headscarf bans in France and Turkey’ – Amélie Barras

– The ECtHR at grassroots level

  • ‘The European Court of Human Rights at the grassroots level: who knows what about religion at the ECtHR and to what effects?’ – Effie Fokas
  • ‘The ‘filtering effects’ of ECtHR case law on religious freedoms: legal recognition and places of worship for religious minorities in Greece’ – Margarita Markoviti
  • ‘‘Genuine’ religions and their arena of legitimation in Italy – the role of the ECtHR’ – Alberta Giorgi and Pasquale Annicchino
  • ‘Legal provisions, courts, and the status of religious communities: a socio-legal analysis of inter-religious relations in Romania’ – Mihai Popa and Liviu Andreescu
  • ‘Beyond legal victory or reform: the legal mobilisation of religious groups in the European Court of Human Rights’ – Ceren Ozgul

Alberta Giorgi, Religioni di minoranza tra Europa e laicità locale [Minority religions between Europe and local secularism], (2018) Milan: Mimesis

Pasquale Annicchino, La religione in giudizio. Tra Corte Suprema degli Stati Uniti e Corte Europea dei diritti dell’uomo, (2018) Bologna: Il Mulino

The European Court of Human Rights on the Ground: Grassroots Level Impact of Religious Freedoms Jurisprudence, ed. Effie Fokas (forthcoming 2019):

  • ‘Introduction’ – Effie Fokas
  • ‘“Multi-Speed Religions”: The ECtHR and the Limits of Legal Recognition of Religious Minorities in Greece’ – Margarita Markoviti
  • ‘The strategic action of religious minorities in Italy’ – Pasquale Annicchino and Alberta Giorgi
  • ‘The interest of religious actors in the ECtHR in the Romanian context’ – Mihai Popa
  • ‘Legal Mobilization among Turkey’s religious minorities and belief groups’ – Ceren Ozgul
  • ‘The role of Jehovah’s Witnesses case law in the jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights’ – James T. Richardson and Mihai Popa
  • ‘The modest and variable recourse of Europe’s ‘old’ and ‘new’ Muslims to human rights litigation’ – Dia Anagnostou
  • ‘Pursuing freedom from religion: Atheists, secularists, and humanists’ activism before the ECtHR’ – Effie Fokas and Julie Ringelheim
  • ‘Conclusion: Tracing the radiating effects of the ECtHR religion-related jurisprudence’ – Effie Fokas



‘The “radiating effects” of the European Court of Human Rights on social mobilisations around religion in Europe – an analytical frame’, Grassrootsmobilise Working Paper 1, v. 22 May 2015 – Dia Anagnostou and Effie Fokas

‘The Secular Court?’, Grassrootsmobilise Working Paper 2, v. 1 November 2016 – Effie Fokas

‘The ECtHR as a Venue for Greco-Turkish Relations: The Treaty of Lausanne and the Muslim Minority in Western Thrace’, Grassrootsmobilise Working Paper 3, v. 4 May 2017 – Margarita Markoviti

‘Religious Pluralism and Education in Greece’, LSE Hellenic Observatory Blog, 21 February 2017 – Effie Fokas and Margarita Markoviti

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Symposium: Religion and Education in the Shadow of the European Court of Human Rights

Politics and Religion, 2019, Vol. 12, Supplement S1

A symposium on the “indirect effects” of the European Court of Human Rights jurisprudence on the place of religion in the educational sphere. The symposium showcases empirical research providing critical insight into how the Court’s decisions may influence related domestic debates, raise public consciousness, and change how social actors perceive their rights and articulate their right claims in the area of religion and education. The research underpinning this symposium represents a clear departure from existing scholarship in this domain: it examines the impact of the Court not from the top-down (Court impact on states and their legislative frameworks) but from grassroots level upwards, in seeking to understand whether, how and to what extent Court decisions influence grassroots level actors’ conceptions of their rights in the domain of religion and education and their efforts to secure new rights vis-à-vis their states.

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Panel on ‘Religious Education in the Greek Context: Papageorgiou v. Greece and Beyond’

16 February 2019

Conference on ‘Religions & Human Rights’, Faculty of Theology, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens

Grassrootsmobilise was recently invited to organise a panel at the University of Athens Conference on ‘Religions & Human Rights’ (13-16 February 2019). This panel on ‘Religious Education in the Greek Context: Papageorgiou v. Greece and Beyond’ brought together scholars and practitioners from Greece and abroad to explore this highly relevant topic from various perspectives.
Effie Fokas discussed ‘Grassrootsmobilise engagements with religious education’, Juris Rudevskis gave an ‘Overview of ECtHR case law related to religion and education’, Margarita Markoviti gave a presentation entitled ‘”We were desperate to find a parent for a case on exemption to the ECtHR!” – Tracing the steps of the mobilisation in ‘Papageorgiou and Others v. Greece‘, Evie Zambeta discussed ‘Religious education and human rights in Greek schools’, and Marios Koukounaras-Liagkis explored the ‘What “to understand religions” really means today and why states should provide an education about religions and non-religious convictions’. A stimulating discussion followed.

The conference programme is available here (in Greek).

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From the Mediterranean Crisis to Brexit: transformations and challenges of citizens’ European identity

17 January 2019

LSE Hellenic Observatory Public Lecture – Megaron Karatza, Athens, Greece

On Thursday, 17 January 2019 Effie Fokas participated in this highly interesting event hosted by the London School of Economics’ Hellenic Observatory and chaired by Kevin Featherstone at the Megaron Karatza in Athens. The main talk by Michael Bruter, and consequent discussion by Effie Fokas, explored the nature of European identity and assessed how widespread it is and what it means to citizens. It also discussed the consequences of European identity on European solidarity, on the split of European societies, and on the transforming nature of protest and Euroscepticism across our continent.

Further information is available here.

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