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Sexualidad, Salud y Sociedad Rio de Janeirono. Brazil gril sex Abstract: This work reflects on Internet and social Brazil gril sex campaigns against sexual harassment and sexual violence, from the moment they first appeared in alternative media and then reached mainstream news stories.
In Brazil, such discussion on media has shown this struggle for recognition since The hegemonic media, nevertheless, prefer to focus on crime such as paedophilia and dramatic stories that are best sellers, and therefore change some of the meanings in dispute. Keywords: media, gender, sexuality, sexual rights, violence. When I was eleven, my body betrayed me. The criminals who have violated us should be ashamed of FirstHarassment, not us.
This article aims to understand how of sexual abuse are being constituted and discussed in the public arena, covering media productions, Internet and social network content and the way meanings are disputed, especially when they travel through different types of media. The analyses also rely on systematically collected data from mainstream and alternative media by a team of undergraduate students - all the stories that could be found related to those two campaigns in the period from to data collected through the internet covering the largest media companies in Brazil82 mainstream news stories in total, and tweets with the first harassment hashtag.
I describe here a process of demanding social recognition Honneth,Fraser, for relatively new notions of sexual harassment that have been in formation or transformation in the Brazilian public arena in recent years. Both the hegemonic media Brazilian larger cultural industries, such as Rede Globo and alternative media - also considered as a counter-public sphere Fraser, Brazil gril sex are mentioned.
Nevertheless, it seems that social media has to be analysed outside the opposition alternative versus mainstream media as in Curran and Couldry,for Brazil gril sex media maintain a commercial structure but allow a wide range of production and partial circulations of meanings and images that can be seen as counter-hegemonic. I see this struggle in demanding sexual rights or sexual citizenship Carrara, as a struggle to change the parameters of sexual moralities and even the notion of personhood for young girls.
The research has explored what seems to be a social and political change concerning the definition of violence, particularly of the association between sexuality and danger Carole Vance, Definitions of violence vary enormously culturally and historically see, among others, Wieviorka,and even definitions of rape have a controversial history.
In the classic work A History of Rape VigarelloGeorges Vigarello explores the social construction of rape as a criminal category alongside changes in mentalities about sexual violence. He follows the long trajectory of the category in the French legal system up to the modern definition of rape as a crime against the person and not against customs or family honourmore attuned to the idea of equality of rights between men and women. Vigarello explores the changes in the conception of rape both in legal systems and its ordinary social use.
As we can also see in Brazil, rape was understood in other ways in decades, and the victims were usually considered accomplices or even co-responsible for rape. The crime of rape was reviewed in in Brazil. A new Constitution ininternational conventions, feminist movements and a case at the Inter-American Court of Human Rights have changed Brazilian laws related to gender violence.
A comprehensive law on domestic violence was promulgated inand it defined many types of violence physical, psychological, sexual, patrimonial and moral. After this, rape was redefined in the Penal Code in in order to take into consideration any sexual act committed without consent, whose victim can be woman or man, thus including anal or oral sex as rape. But as this article shows, victims mentioned acts that could even be classified as Brazil gril sex under the name of harassment. My main point here is that the campaigns against sexual harassment initially launched on alternative and social media were part of larger struggle whose more tangible outcome is law revision.
There has been a continuous circulation of the debate in the mediascape Appadurai,from social networks to mainstream media specifically from onwards. A new 21 st century wave of young feminism is at the origin of the new campaigns.
But, even unmentioned, some ideas of a liberal feminism have always been present in the hegemonic media. Following Sonia AlvarezI consider feminism as a discursive field of action that is built around many lines of political communicative webs, guiding strategies and identities. Many of these groups were already being articulated through the Internet orkut, blogs, mailing lists as well, but after the arrival of web 2. I will focus here on more recent years, since The campaign against sexual harassment shows how web 2.
I want to convey the idea that a process of exposing narratives promoted recognition of acts of violence, and shared similar feelings and experiences through the Internet. In a way, the web also promoted a feminist pedagogy of perceiving the violence against girls.
Digital media and the web 2. If the popularization of new media has changed the mediascapeas Appadurai calls the media panorama, the patterns of consumption have also changed. In the country, Internet access grew particularly during the second decade of Brazil gril sex 21 st century, still in its very particular unequal shape - one-third of Internet users only have access through mobile phones.
As in many countries, access is unequal in terms of regions and generation. The age group between years old is the most present on the web, Urban middle and upper classes have wider experience in navigating through the web. In Brazil had more than 63 million Facebook users, and the figures have risen in the last years. Although my first experience with harassment happened in childhood, I was only able to talk about it 16 years later, at the age of 27, when I saw for the first time in my life, a friend complaining in a Facebook post about sexual harassment in public places.
Then I had the strength to turn that experience into words. I decided that I would not Brazil gril sex back to a place of silence and fear. However, people women need information about that. Think Olga wants to fight sexism and social inequalities, bringing information to women and girls. Sincemany materials, like the images shown below, spread from the site to social media:.
Walking in public spaces does not make my body public. In the beginning, Juliana and most of the young journalists working at Think Olga were white, upper-middle class, graduates from some of the best Brazilian universities, in their late twenties or early thirties. Juliana did not even see herself as a feminist when the experience began. Inworking for the largest publishing groups in the country as Abril and Globoshe was a free-lance journalist doing jobs for female magazines.
But the editors did not consider Brazil gril sex an appropriate topic for their female readers. When Think Olga posts and website became more popular among middle-class urban girls and women, and the interactions in social media grew, Brazil gril sex became quite a celebrity in those same mainstream magazines. That was when she became the interviewee.
I first saw them through Facebook in Those initiatives were propelled to express both the ordinariness of sexual harassment and its violent and traumatic nature.
The online research showed that Juliana herself was then able to push her agenda into mainstream media. In SeptemberJuliana declared to mainstream media how she was affected, at the age of eleven, by such male mis behaviour. Growing breasts and buttocks attracted the looks of many men.
At first, for Juliana, her body was the cause of male interpellation. Her body determined her experience as if the problem was her corporality, as if the agent of the action was her body but not herselfa physicality she could not control. Brazil is seen by foreigners as a highly sexualized country. The point is, for many years, we had no name for those scenes and feelings that have substantially affected our lives. This was also part of a naturalized sense of fear of being in public spaces that the campaign wanted to stress.
Juliana then remarks that for years she was ashamed of her body. Feeling afraid, she avoided the streets, and she wore clothes that covered her body. She became suspicious of known and unknown older men. In the way she recovers her experiences, she conveys it was a trauma she wanted to publicly uncover, to speak up.
But at the same time her story was so familiar that many women identified with it and started completing her online map. Besides, the idea of trauma and suffering had an important appeal for readers who then identified with these narratives. The site from Think Olga also gave clear definitions:. But what is harassment? There was, therefore, a struggle to build harassment as a subtype of sexual offence, to build the social recognition that what was once seen as normal, should be now considered as an aggression that could lead to more violent crimes, such as rape or sexual assault.
Children were engaged in a cooking competition reality show, and a year-old girl was the object of sexual remarks posted via tweets. Those tweets were on the trending topics on the next day, and a on Facebook was launched and later deleted expressing male sexual desire for the girl, framed as a kind of fan club.
Besides sexualising her body and manners as well as the bodies and manners of other children participating in the showsome of those Brazil gril sex and posts asked if a consensual sex approach could be seen as paedophilia. Posts and tweets from firstharassment started flooding my timeline on Facebook in the following days and my classes at the university as well. Brazil gril sex also clearly involved two taboo that are usually mentioned with horror: rape and paedophilia.
Speaking up and telling those stories in the first person would be a relief. When searching for patterns, we 25 found cases of street hassling and flashing by unknown men; school bullying; sexual assault or attempted rape by a family member or an acquaintance; sexual assault or attempted rape by a stranger; and even cases of rape by a family member, an acquaintance or a stranger.
Aggressors are of the same age or older, including family members grandfather, father, stepfather, brother, cousin, uncle, godfather or someone considered as familyschoolmates, neighbours, or friends. In the cases of street hassling, most aggressors are unknown. Shame and fear prevented women from telling those stories before, and the majority Brazil gril sex perpetrators are men the victims already knew - relatives, friends, colleagues, neighbours, and boyfriends.
They also show how difficult it is to name and express situations of violence in an explicit manner as in Das, The lack of a category that also expressed those acts as violence or at least some kind of aggression was part of the impossibility of talking about it. There was a flood of narratives, Brazil gril sex they made more women remember their own stories. Some women stated that they were remembering facts they had already forgotten like the definition of trauma itself - so painful that one forgets ; and that they feel better about it when they are listened to, and other people answered and reacted with support.
As with other feminist campaigns on violence and the various forms of categorising gender violencethe idea of speaking up, even with the necessary exposure of what was earlier felt as something to be ashamed of, of what was never mentioned before, is seen as potentially liberating and empowering. The first person narrative itself seems to mean a relief, but the act of being acknowledged and the supporting comments are a source for affective ties.
They produce a sense of being the same kind of people, creating somehow a feminist identity. Those narratives even shorter narratives on Twitter produced affective identifications as I discussed in Almeida, andreaders engaged affectively, and therefore solidarity was shown. Support from others seems to be the healing part. Juliana stresses the idea that speaking up and breaking the silence is a way of fighting for gender justice:.
But the exposure of situations in which young women were feeling vulnerable - and for most of their lives they were ashamed of - had unpredictably exposed them. Some Brazil gril sex them became targets of misogynistic attacks. They generated both resistance more women campaigning and hate reactions and attacks. So they were emotionally vulnerable Brazil gril sex the web, exposing themselves to criticism, to ridicule and even to attacks. As Banet-Weiser reminds us, misogyny comes along with feminist ideas of empowering.
A maid let me touch her boobs. It was fucking great. If you were a man, you would know. It reminds us of the situation of housemaids as a mark of a country built around slavery. We cannot possibly know what his pleasure meant to the maid, but this dialogue reveals that the same act can mean violence for the victims or pure pleasure for the perpetrators. Some men also reacted positively in a supportive way, some even said they should learn more about it, and change their Brazil gril sex.
No more thinking that some of those abuses are tolerable. No more sexism. But they have no control - nor do the young journalists working on those media - of the final format the hegemonic media will give to the subject. It shows the impact on mainstream media of the growing visibility of a feminist discursive field of action, or many types of groups and movements, online and offline, acting in the country. Many young feminist initiatives - collectives in schools and universities, campaigns, blogs and sites, but also street manifestations - took Brazil gril sex.
New social media were part of the movement promoting narratives and identifications. Mainstream media chose some of those to be in the forefront.
For such media it was easier to portray Juliana de Faria and not the working class black feminists or from the outskirts that were also part of the same movement. The white middle-class demands for ending street harassment seems to commercial media less offensive than anti-capitalist, anti-racist or pro-abortion movements. Additionally, firstharassment was more appealing because of the sensational and dramatic stories of sexual violence against Brazil gril sex it made visible. The paedophilic tone to it also made it more dramatic - children are much more legitimate victims than teenage girls or young women.
Mainstream media could only convey the idea of violence or aggression if the victims were seen as legitimate victims - that is, according to certain gender heteronormativity and sexual morality as shown in researches on rape and domestic violence, as Sarti, e ; Lins, Vieira,Almeida and Maracchini,Brazil gril sex
email: [email protected] - phone:(437) 902-6346 x 7831
Interview: an overview of child sexual exploitation in Brazil