Men who stalk women

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The aim of this work was to investigate stalking experiences in a sample of Health Care Professionals, or HCPs, who experienced domestic violence in their relationships with an intimate romantic or non-romantic who had become their stalkers. A comparison between males and females was made to highlight the differences among the genders.

The findings showed that, for the most part, the victims experienced stalking by a stalker that was not of the same gender.

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Moreover, the nature of the relationship was romantic, for the most part, for both female and male subjects, suggesting that the principal motivation of stalking is the disruption of an intimate relationship. Regarding domestic violence, females described the phenomenon from a different perspective, indicating verbal, physical, and sexual abuse, while males indicated only verbal abuse. Females tended to amplify, more than the males, depression, Men who stalk women state and trait anxiety. Even if all symptoms were expressed in both females and males, the males exhibited a lack of confidence in their bodies, and the emotional literacy made the expression of distress more difficult.

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At the same time, the expression of anxiety presented in the women permitted them to become progressively less victimized over time; depression and anxiety allow the recognition of these symptoms as s of distress and to intervene to reduce them. Stalking has been defined by Westrup as a set of repetitive behaviors directed toward a target that perceives those behaviors as unwelcome and intrusive. As a consequence, victims of stalking experience fear for their safety Sheridan et al.

Since the s, national surveys have been made in several countries see for example Tjaden and Thoennes, using different criteria both to define the phenomenon e. This limitation did not allow the stalking campaign to be defined in a unique way, influencing and being influenced — De Fazio, the boundaries of the phenomenon. Despite these limitations, Spitzberg and Cupachidentified the prevalence rate of victimization among females and males Men who stalk women the general population.

Thus, the risk of victimization among females is higher, particularly in young individuals 18—29 years and may extend to when the stalker tries to establish or reestablish a relationship. Regarding this relationship, Sheridan et al. From their work, it appears that prior domestic violence increases the chances of becoming a victim of stalking. Moreover, as underlined by Senkans et al. In their investigation, in which victims of stalking were involved, Ferreira and Matos found that the majority of participants reported they had experienced partner abuse before the beginning of the stalking campaign caused by the end of the relationship.

Among these, the findings revealed that stalking victims suffer from a very diverse spectrum of behaviors, more frequently unwanted communication and contact, while harassment and intimidation are the least frequent. Mullen et al. To confirm this, findings from the investigation by Sheridan and Lyndonwhich involved 1, self-defined stalking victims, showed that victims who had a prior relationship with their stalkers were more likely to experience a greater of emotive, physical, and social consequences than other types of Men who stalk women relationships.

To cope with the phenomenon, victims use several strategies. Spitzberg and Cupach categorized these coping strategies see also Amar and Alexy, as the following:. Cupach and Spitzberg highlighted that victims engage in multiple strategies to cope with stalking campaigns. Ferreira and Matos highlighted that the most used coping strategies by victims of stalking, ly victims of domestic violence, were to search for help from friends or family moving outward, following the categorization of the coping strategies suggested by Spitzberg and Cupachto negotiate with and to confront the stalker moving towardand to avoid the stalker moving away.

An analysis of the literature revealed that one of the samples most investigated was HCPs see McIvor et al. Findings from investigations involving psychiatrists, physicians, nurses, psychologists, and among others have shown that this population is at higher risk of victimization than the general population Ashmore et al. In their literature analysis, Spitzberg and Cupach argued that the average incidence was In this population, the risk of victimization has been linked to both to the nature of their work and to the expectation about the engagement in the relationship Galeazzi et al.

Their professional behavior, involving being devoted to caring for the patient, could be misunderstood as a desire to begin Men who stalk women relationship intimate romantic or non-romantic. The motion to change the nature of the relationship from the HCP could cause disillusioned beliefs, feelings of frustration, desires of revenge, and so on Galeazzi et al. Thus, a stalking campaign begins with the aim of establishing a relationship.

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On the other hand, people partners, friends, and relatives have expectations about the quality of the care that HCPs provide, also outside the workplace. These expectations are linked to the attention to the relationship Men who stalk women, as has emerged in research Acquadro Maran et al. In this case, the stalking campaign Men who stalk women begin with the desire of revenge. A gap in the literature is related to the experience of domestic violence in this population and the experience of stalking victimization. The possibility that they could themselves be victims of domestic violence was not considered.

However, investigations showed that HCPs are victims by acquaintances and ex-partners Ashmore et al. The aim of this work was to investigate stalking experiences in a sample of Italian female and male HCPs who experienced Men who stalk women violence and stalking victimization.

The Italian context has been characterized since by the introduction of the anti-stalking law Penal Code, article bis research on Italian HCP victims of stalking, showed that among nurses, 28 were victims of an ex-partner, while 44 were victims of acquaintances Acquadro Maran et al.

In an investigation among HCPs, it emerged that stalkers were ex-partners of 88 victims, while for 95 they were acquaintances Acquadro Maran et al. The general goal of our study was to evaluate the stalking experience in a sample of HCPs that experienced domestic violence in their relationship with an intimate romantic or non-romantic that became their stalkers. A comparison between males and females was made to highlight the differences between the sexes.

The variables investigated were those described by the literature see above : nature of the relationship, stalking behaviors, the frequency and the duration of the stalking campaign one item eachthe consequences, and the coping strategies used. Given the lack of literature on this topic, we did not have specific hypotheses about the gender difference in the stalking experience of females and males who experienced domestic violence.

The data were gathered from a survey on stalking victimization involving more than HCP who worked in 6 Italian hospitals public sectorand questionnaires were filled out The HCPs self-declared victims of stalker were A selection was made among the cases of self-declared victimization. The criteria of inclusion were the nature of the relationship [intimate romantic such as partner and ex-partner and intimate non-romantic relatives, close friends — see Spitzberg, ] and the presence of a form of domestic violence verbal abuse, physical harm, sexual abuse — Bennett Cattaneo et al.

Victims of other types of stalkers acquaintance, unknown and those who did not suffer from domestic violence were not included.

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Overall, most of them were nurses 59, Six 4. About a quarter were single 36, The remainder of the sample 4, 2. The stalker was in most cases a male In 13 8. All victims experienced verbal abuse before the beginning of the stalking campaign, 15 All respondents took part on a voluntary basis. Participants were asked to anonymously complete several sections of a self-administered questionnaire. The first section described the purpose of the questionnaire and contained the instructions for replying, as well as the anonymity and privacy statements.

Lorraine Sheridan Forensic Psychologist, University of Leicestera questionnaire on depression, and two scales on anxiety were used to describe the experience of victimization. The Italian version of the stalking questionnaire covered issues such as demographic details of the participants and the stalkers and the duration and frequency of stalking.

The coping strategies were subsequently categorized as suggested by Spitzberg and Spitzberg and Cupach as moving toward, moving away, moving against, moving inward, or moving outward e. The BDI is a question survey deed to determine the presence of depression symptoms. Each scale includes 20 items. The total scores can range between 20 and 80, where 40 is the threshold value considered predictive of anxiety symptoms. All the questionnaires were self-administered.

A letter with the invitation to take part in the investigation on HCPs victims of stalking was sent out to six hospitals. In the letter, we explained the purpose of the research, the voluntary nature of participation, the anonymity and privacy statement in accordance Men who stalk women Italian Law and with the Declaration of Helsinki, the scales that would be used and the procedure for completing and collecting the questionnaires. Hospital administrations and local guarantee committees evaluated, endorsed, and authorized the research, allowing researchers to use the data for scientific purposes.

Each participant was given a printout of the questionnaire, the information letter, and the informed consent form in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. The first Men who stalk women the questionnaire contained the aim of the research, the instructions for completing and returning the questionnaires and the contact details of the researchers the authors of this paper for any doubts or problems. The stalking phenomenon was described on the first. All HCPs were asked to complete the first Men who stalk women of the Men who stalk women socio-personal data.

For all, the request was to place the questionnaire in a sealed box situated in the locker room. The scheduled date for collection was after a 3-week period after 1 week there was a reminder placed on the sealed box. The data were processed using SPSS version 24 to produce mainly descriptive and inferential statistics. Correlations were calculated to examine the relation between the of physical and emotional symptoms reported by female and male victims of stalking and depression and anxiety symptoms, and between the of methods of harassment and the coping strategies used by victims female, male.

Female HCPs who self-declared as victims of domestic violence and stalking were 96 Most of them were nurses 38, About one third were married 27, The stalker was in most cases a male 88, The stalker was an employee in most cases 83, The nature of the relationship with the victims was intimate romantic in 67 cases The domestic violence was described by the victims as verbal abuse all respondentsphysical harm 15, The behaviors that characterized the stalking victimization are in Table 1.

TABLE 1. The stalking campaign left the victims with both physical and emotive consequences see Table 2. Regarding depression and anxiety, the showed that, for the most part, for females the level of depression was minimal Table 3even if the females experienced symptoms more often than males.

Regarding trait anxiety, the findings showed that females were more prone than males to reach the cut-off for moderate anxiety STAI-Y2. The of emotive consequence was ificantly related to the increase in depression symptoms Table 4. To cope with the stalking campaign, the victims adopted different strategies Table 5. All victims adopted at least one strategy of the moving away type. TABLE 2. TABLE 3.

TABLE 4. TABLE 5. TABLE 6. Male HCPs who self-declared as victims of stalking were 51, Most of them were nurses 21, Three HCPs did not give any information about their work. More than one third were single 17, Three participants did not give an answer to this question. The stalker was in most cases a female 34, The stalker was an employee in most Men who stalk women the cases 37, The nature of the relationship with the victims was intimate romantic in 37 The domestic violence was described by all victims as verbal abuse.

None of the male respondents indicated physical harm or sexual abuse. The stalking campaign was characterized by different behaviors see Table 1. The physical and emotive consequences that characterized the stalking campaigns are in Table 2. The physical consequence was ificantly related to both state and trait anxiety symptoms Table 4. To cope with the stalking campaign, victims adopted different strategies Table 5. Similar to the sample of females, all the males adopted at least one strategy of the moving against type.

Men who stalk women

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