Added: Chaniqua Callender - Date: 28.01.2022 00:24 - Views: 25262 - Clicks: 3815
Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. In an ethnographic investigation of drug use among second-generation Southeast Asian youth in Northern Californiarespondents described What is thizz drug use of or interest in using Ecstasy; yet in a second study, Ecstasy was the fourth most commonly-used substance. This paper investigates the social contexts for this change in use patterns. Respondents were second-generation Southeast Asian youths and young adults between the ages of 15 and 26 who were currently or recently drug-involved.
We compared qualitative data from the What is thizz drug studies and found emerging patterns of meaning and context related to the observed change in use patterns. The meanings ased to drugs, including the effects ascribed to them, may be relative to the social contexts within which users are exposed to and consume drugs.
The findings indicate the susceptibility of youths to local trends in drug use, particularly associated with popular cultural movements and music. Second-generation youths may be particularly susceptible relative to the conditions of their immigration and processes of identity formation unique to them. Much research on illicit drugs has described the dynamic nature of substances, including emergent trends within and between groups.
Merrill Singer has described these dynamics as five types: changes in user population; changes in drug content or form; changes in drug use paraphernalia; changes in the drug production and distribution; and changes in the social-biological environments of drug use Singer, Singer associated many of these changes with youth, who are said to be more open to experimentation and risk-taking. A key aspect of these drug use dynamics is the diffusion of changes across populations.
To describe the social mechanism by which changes diffuse, Singer combined the concepts of social epidemic and diffusion of innovation to describe the transmission of new ideas by way of charismatic individuals mavens, or trendsetters linked in social networks. This analysis provides a useful structural model for drug changes, but neglects to include the cultural dimension of change: what makes new drug use forms and media attractive to new users? We relate these changes to a notable change in the social environment—specifically, a new genre of popular music—as well as possible changes in drug content.
Much research has documented the changes in the social meanings of mind-altering substances. The case of Prohibition in the USA is one of the most prominent examples of a change in the social meaning of a substance. Most studies of changes in the social meanings of substance have focused on large-scale manifestations of change, such as national laws or population-based surveys of use showing changing prevalence rates. By focusing our research at the local level of drug use among a specific population, we aim to highlight the ways in which drug changes are reflected among subgroups and in everyday life.
Data are drawn from ethnographic What is thizz drug with key informants and drug users across two projects focusing on drug use among young persons What is thizz drug Laotian and Cambodian descent. The data provide a unique opportunity to investigate changes in drug use and meanings. Due to the specific contours of their immigration history to the USA, a generation of Southeast Asian youths have grown up deeply immersed in the cultural context of the generally low-income neighborhoods within which they have settled. They are highly responsive to local youth cultural forms, including drug use.
Our investigation of the drug use practices and norms of these youths provides a window into the processes of cultural transmission. Data collection over two time periods with a very narrowly-defined sample allowed us to detail group-level changes in Ecstasy use norms and beliefs within a relatively short period of time. MDMA is commonly thought to have been patented as an appetite suppressant. MDMA first appeared as a street drug in the s.
American drug monitoring systems showed an increase in the use of Ecstasy in the later part of the s Maxwell, The complex nature of the international dance scene, with diverse forms of drug use documented in a diversity of geographic settings, should not be underestimated. Findings from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health showed that between and lifetime use What is thizz drug Ecstasy increased from These data indicate that many people were experimenting with Ecstasy use, although fewer were maintaining the habit.
Schensul and colleagues described the diffusion of Ecstasy through clubs and into urban neighborhoods as well as among ethnic minority groups Schensul et al.
The U. To date there have been only a few studies of use of illicit drugs among Asian Americans and very little is known about Ecstasy use among these groups. We have conducted two studies, both involving drug-using Cambodian and Laotian youth and young adults in two low-income Northern California communities. Interestingly, the first conducted infound that participants reported little Ecstasy use or interest in the drug. Four years later, however, a follow-up project indicated increased acceptance and use of Ecstasy. This article compares qualitative data from the two studies to examine the changes in the social contexts and social meanings of Ecstasy use in these samples.
In the USA, assessing What is thizz drug prevalence of drug use, let alone any single drug type such as Ecstasy, among Asians is problematic for a variety of reasons. These features have direct implications with the risks for substance use. Southeast Asians arrived in the USA, as in other countries around the world, in large s as refugees fleeing war and social upheaval in Indochina.
Their immigration to the USA peaked in the mids. Most What is thizz drug originating from Laos and Cambodia arrived in the USA with little in the way of social and economic resources, including limited or no English skills and formal education. Very many were severely burdened by psychological and physical traumas suffered during the war and refugee experiences. The largest s of Southeast Asian refugees settled in California.
Most of these families found themselves living in depressed urban or suburban areas with poor social and physical infrastructure but ready access to alcohol, drugs and gangs. Recent studies in the USA have found continuing poor and untreated mental health conditions among Southeast Asian adults Marshall et al. Attention to drug use in the region from an epidemiologic perspective, however, is relatively recent.
Data on drug use among the younger generation of Southeast Asians living in diaspora is also limited. However, the s of Cambodians and Laotians included in the sample were too small to obtain reliable prevalence estimates for these subgroups. Immigrant youths may be particularly susceptible to local peer influences in drug use. In interviewing Asian Americans ravers regarding their drug use, Moloney and colleagues identified various aspects of the acculturation process which have shaped the drug use of these youths, including a sense that among their peers drug use was expected, everyday and mundane, i.
The present study adds to this growing literature examining the processes by which specific drugs may become increasingly acceptable and normal to immigrants and their children. In particular we examine the cultural processes by which drugs become meaningful. In this study we focus on social constructs surrounding the use of drugs. Experiences What is thizz drug be apprehended only through socially-available What is thizz drug, i. Adolescent socialization to drug and alcohol use includes talking and hearing about drugs and alcohol as well as ingesting these substances.
At the same time, youths assess and label the somatic experience of drug use according to available language and values. For this reason, researchers such as Glassner and Loughlin have advocated increased attention to the ways in which adolescents themselves describe drugs and drug use.
By comparing the social construction of Ecstasy across two time periods for a very specific population of drug-involved youths Northern California Southeast Asian Americanswe aim to provide an understanding of how changing and emergent forms of illicit drug use may reflect changing cultural contexts for youthful drug users.
The respondents in these projects were adolescents and young adults of Laotian or Cambodian descent who had lived the majority or entirety of their lives in these communities. The respondents in both projects were recruited through a combination of agency and snowball referrals. Data collection for Project 1 occurred in The total sample for this project was 31 respondents, aged 15 to Data collection for Project 2 occurred approximately four years later, beginning in and ending in The total sample for this project was respondents, aged 15 to Ethnic minority and refugee communities as well What is thizz drug drug users constitute hard-to-reach populations in drug research.
Recruitment of persons from these populations to research programs is extremely challenging. Establishing trust and rapport are critical for success. For the Project 1, potential respondents were recruited directly by the ethnographic field staff who scheduled and conducted the interviews.
The two interviewers each exploited their separate networks in the local Southeast Asian community. One interviewer was a part-time employee at a community—based organization serving the Laotian community, and was able to recruit potential respondents through contacts in partner agencies with youth-specific programs. The second interviewer was herself Laotian-American and began her initial recruiting through family and friend networks. Both interviewers obtained snowball referrals from the respondents they interviewed, but no incentives were provided for snowball referrals.
For Project 2 we utilized several additional strategies to support recruitment What is thizz drug the larger target sample. We had established good relations with community-based organizations serving these communities and with youth and families through research projects and through our active participation in a Southeast Asian community task force.
Staff members at community-based organizations assisted recruitment by referring youths from their programs. Potential respondents were again recruited directly by the ethnographic field interviewers. This project was able to encourage these referrals by providing small incentives for all qualified referrals.
To expand the project sample to diversified networks of drug-involved Southeast Asian youths we limited all agency referrals to ten completed interviews and all snowball referrals to four completed interviews. For both projects, all potential candidates, whether recruited through agency contacts or snowball referrals, were screened for illicit drug use by self-report.
In order to obtain information about drug use norms from the perspective of direct personal experience, recent past six months drug use was a requirement in the second project.What is thizz drug
email: [email protected] - phone:(121) 178-4811 x 9557
Thizzin’—Ecstasy use contexts and emergent social meanings